Life Is Long – Endnotes

Life Is Long - EndnotesLIFE IS LONG is an inspiring longevity book written by Karen Salmansohn – with 50+ tips to help you live a little closer to forever.

You can get the book for yourself or a friend by clicking here!

Below are the endnotes for LIFE IS LONG.


J. Hjelmborg, “Genetic Influence on Human Lifespan and Longevity,” Human Genetics 119, no. 3 (April 2006): 312[-]21, doi:10.1007/s00439-006-0144-y.

K. Christensen, N. V.  Holm, M. McGue, L. Corder, and J. W. Vaupel, “A Danish Population-Based Twin Study on General Health in the Elderly,” Journal of Aging and Health 11, no. 1 (February 1999): 49[-]64,

Becca R. Levy, Martin D. Slade, Suzanne R. Kunkel, and Stanislav V. Kasl, “Longevity Increased by Positive Self-Perceptions of Aging,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83, no. 2 (2002): 261[-]270, doi:10.1037//0022-3514.83.2.261,

1. Eat Like An Immortal: Practice “Hara Hachi Bu”

Eric Hochman, M.D., “Doctor’s Notes: Hara Hachi Bu—To a Healthy and Happy New Year,” Naples Daily News, January 29, 2016,–to-a-healthy-and-happy-new-year-289dd07e-1c51-1ea1-e053-0100007f0f97-366986261.html.

2. Warning: Sugar Is a Sociopath!

Ann Norman, “Health Expert Dr. Mark Hyman Weighs In on the Benefits of Fat,” March 16, 2016,

Nationally known health expert and Cleveland Clinic physician Mark Hyman talks about the benefits of dietary fat in a talk at Medina’s Performing Arts Center.


Mark Hyman, MD, “Top 10 Big Ideas: How to Detox from Sugar,” n.d.,

Here’s the not-so-sweet truth. We are killings ourselves by consuming truckloads of hidden sugar. Sugar is the New Fat Despite 40 years of Americans being brainwashed into thinking that fat is bad, it turns out it’s sugar, not fat, that makes you sick and overweight. The facts are in, the science is beyond question. Sugar …


Danielle Pashko, “Pashko Wellness,” n.d.,

3. Eat Sit and Die

World Health Organization, “Physical Activity” [Fact sheet], updated February 2017,

World Health Organization, “Physical Inactivity: A Global Public Health Problem,” n.d.,

Robert Glatter, MD, “Why Sitting Increases Your Risk of Dying Sooner,” Forbes, February 9, 2013,

Elizabeth Dougherty, “Unraveling Alzheimer’s Disease, Part 3: Working It Out: Can Exercise Help, Delay or Prevent Disease?,” BU Today, April 27, 2013,

Boston University School of Medicine, “Data Suggests Modest Physical Activity Linked to Improved Markers of Insulin Sensitivity, Inflammation,” January 26, 2017,

4. Get Your Vitamin Zzzzzzzzzzzzz’s

Daniel F. Kripke, MD, et al., “Mortality Related to Actigraphic Long and Short Sleep,” Sleep Medicine 12, no. 1 (January 2011): 28[-]33,

Laura Schocker, “Here’s a Horrifying Picture of What Sleep Loss Will Do to You,” Huffington Post, January 8, 2014,

Cancer Treatment Centers of America, “Researchers Are Studying the Link between Sleep and Cancer,” n.d.,

5. Live More Seasons with Seasonings

Elizabeth Renter, “The Powerful Bacteria-Killing Spice with 4 Times the Antioxidants of Blueberries,”

 Wanwarang Wongcharoen et al., “Effects of Curcuminoids on Frequency of Acute Myocardial Infarction after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting,” American Journal of Cardiology 110, no. 1 (July 2012): 40[-]4,

Kris Gunnars, “10 Proven Health Benefits of Turmeric and Curcumin,” June 9, 2017,

“The Antioxidant Value of Ground Cloves Spice Described in ORAC Units Is: 290,283 μ mol TE/100g,”

Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi et al., “Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence,”International Journal of Preventive Medicine 4, suppl 1 (April 2013): S36[-]S42,

6. Delete Meat

Paul N. ApplebyFrancesca L. CroweKathryn E. BradburyRuth C. Travis, and Timothy J. Key, “Mortality in Vegetarians and Comparable Nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, December 9, 2015, doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.119461,

William Faloon, “Do Vegetarians Live Longer?” Life Extension, 2006,

7. Get Your Coffee Buzz On!

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, “Moderate Coffee Drinking May Lower Risk of Premature Death,” November 16, 2015,

Ming Ding et al., “Association of Coffee Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Three Large Prospective Cohorts,” Circulation, November 16, 2015,

Indiana University Bloomington Newsroom, “IU Study Finds Caffeine Boosts Enzyme That Could Protect against Dementia,” March 7, 2017,

8. Be Like Gumby

Leonardo Barbosa Barreto de Brito et al., “Ability to Sit and Rise from the Floor as a Predictor of All-Cause Mortality,” European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 21, no. 7 (July 2014): 892-8. doi:10.1177/2047487312471759,

10. If You Don’t Want to Bite the Dust, Brush Your Teeth!

Kathleen Blanchard, “A Trip to the Dentist Might Reduce Heart Disease Risk,” EmaxHealth, December 21, 2008,

Stefania Piconi et al., “Treatment of Periodontal Disease Results in Improvements in Endothelial Dysfunction and Reduction of the Carotid Intima-Media Thickness,” The FASEB Journal 23, no. 4 (April 2009): 1196[-]1204, doi:10.1096/fj.08-119578.

Janet Fricker, “Why Brushing Your Teeth Regularly Can Prevent a Stroke,” Daily Mail, May 11, 2009,

Alison Palmer, “Want to Extend Your Life Expectancy? 20 Things You Can Do to Help You Live for Longer,” Daily Mirror, March 11, 2016,

11. Live a Berry, Berry Long Time with Polyphenols

R. Zamora-Ros et al., “High Concentrations of a Urinary Biomarker of Polyphenol Intake Are Associated with Decreased Mortality in Older Adults,” Journal of Nutrition 143, no. 9 (September 2013): 1445[-]50, doi:10.3945 /jn.113.177121,

12. Try a Fast to Slooooow Down Aging

S. Brandhorst et al., “A Periodic Diet That Mimics Fasting Promotes Multi-System Regeneration, Enhanced Cognitive Performance, and Healthspan,” Cell Metabolism 22, no. 1 (July 7, 2015): 86[-]99, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.05.012

Megumi Hatori et al., “Time-Restricted Feeding without Reducing Caloric Intake Prevents Metabolic Diseases in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet,” Cell Metabolism 15, no. 6 (June 6, 2012): 848[-]860,

Peter Janiszewski, Ph.D., “When You Eat May Be as Important as What You Eat,” Obesity Panacea [Blog], May 23, 2012,

Krista A. Varady and Marc K. Hellerstein, “Alternate-Day Fasting and Chronic Disease Prevention: A Review of Human and Animal Trials,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86, no. 1 (July 2007): 7[-]13,

13. Give Yourself an Oil Change

Mahshid Dehghan, PhD, et al., “Associations of Fats and Carbohydrate Intake with Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in 18 countries from Five Continents (PURE): A Prospective Cohort Study,” The Lancet 390, no. 10107 (November 4, 2017): 2050[-]2062,

Harvard Health Publishing, “The Truth about Fats: The Good, the Bad, and the In-Between,” Harvard Medical School (February 2015, Updated August 22, 2017),

Bradley J. Fikes, “Keto Diets Extend Life, Health, Memory, Two Studies in Mice Find,” San Diego Tribune, September 5, 2017,

Megan N. Roberts et al., “A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice,” Cell Metabolism 26, no. 3 (September 2017): 539[-]546,

Frank Sacks, “Setting the Record Straight: It’s Best to Swap Out Saturated Fats for Healthier Fats,” Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health (June 15, 2017),

Elisabetta Lauretti and Domenico Praticò, “Effect of Canola Oil Consumption on Memory, Synapse, and Neuropathology in the Triple Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease,” Scientific Reports (December 2017), doi:10.1038/s41598-017-17373-3

Mental Health Daily, “MCT Oil Benefits: List Of Scientific Possibilities,” n.d.,

Hrefna Palsdottir, “9 Evidence-Based Health Benefits of Avocado Oil,” Healthline (April 6, 2016),

Omar Ortiz-Avila et al., “Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats,” Journal of Diabetes Research 2015 (2015),

Harvard Men’s Health Watch, “Is Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Extra Healthy?” Harvard Health Publishing (December 2013),

S. Montserrat-de la Paz et al., “Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Oil: Analytical and Phytochemical Characterization of the Unsaponifiable Fraction,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62, no. 5 (2014): 1105–1110, doi:10.1021/jf404278q.

Susie Neilson, “Coconut Oil Is Still Fine — Not Great, But Fine,” New York Magazine, June 2017,

14. Be Pro-Probiotic

Buck Institute for Research on Aging, “Altering Community of Gut Bacteria Promotes Health and Increases Lifespan,” January 9, 2014,

15. The Longer Your Telomeres, the Longer Your Life

Elizabeth Blackburn, The Telomere Effect: A Revolutionary Approach to Living Younger, Healthier, Longer (New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2017).

Amanda MacMillan, “Exercise Makes You Younger at the Cellular Level,” Health, Time, May 15, 2017,

Gretchen Reynolds, “Does Exercise Slow the Aging Process?” Well, New York Times, October 28, 2015,

16. Eating Old Food Will Make You Older Faster

Salina Jivani, “5 Strange Things That Could Be Diminishing Your Lifespan,” VEU Magazine, March 30, 2017,

S. G. Lee et al., “Age-Associated Molecular Changes Are Deleterious and May Modulate Life Span through Diet,” Science Advances 3, no. 2 (February 17, 2017), doi:10.1126/sciadv.160183,

17. Hey Honey! Try Bee Pollen!

Alex Malinsky, “Bee Pollen – Eat to Prolong Longevity and Reverse Nutritional Deficiencies,” Natural News, November 21, 2010,

Live Superfoods, “Bee Pollen Benefits,” n.d.,

18. Add Supplements to Add Years to Your Life

Cedric F. Garland et al., “Meta-Analysis of All-Cause Mortality According to Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D,” American Journal of Public Health (2014): e1, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302034.

Thomas J. Littlejohns et al., “Vitamin D and the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease,” American Academy of Neurology (August 2014), doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000755.

Mian Li, Peizhan Chen, Jingquan Li, Ruiai Chu, Dong Xie, and Hui Wang, “Review: The Impacts of Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Cancer Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 99, no. 7 (July 2014): 2327[-]36, doi:10.1210/jc.2013-4320.

Nutri Advanced, “Thinking of Supplementing with Vitamin D? . . . Think Vitamin K2 Too!” n.d.,

Lina Buchanan, “CoQ10: The Longevity Factor,” Life Extension, January 2013,

Debora-Dale Young, “Coenzyme Q10 the Sparkplug of Life and Longevity,” n.d.,

Gerasimos P. Sykiotis, Ioannis G. Habeos, Andrew V. Samuelson, and Dirk Bohmann, “The Role of the Antioxidant and Longevity-Promoting Nrf2 Pathway in Metabolic Regulation,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 14, no. 1 (January 2011): 41[-]48, doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834136f2,

The clinical potential of influencing Nrf2 signaling in degenerative and immunological disorders

Danielle R. Bruns et al., “Nrf2 Signaling and the Slowed Aging Phenotype: Evidence from Long-Lived Models,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity(2015): 732596, doi:10.1155/2015/732596,

Do You Know The Power of the Nrf2 Pathway?

Brain Grain Book

Gaia Skibinski et al., “Nrf2 Mitigates LRRK2- and α-synuclein–Induced Neurodegeneration by Modulating Proteostasis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (December 27, 2016), doi:10.1073/pnas.1522872114.

Bifeng Gao, An Doan, and Brooks M. Hybertson, “The Clinical Potential of Influencing Nrf2 Signaling in Degenerative and Immunological Disorders,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 6 (2014): 19[-]34, doi:10.2147/CPAA.S35078,

Randy Strong et al., “Evaluation of Resveratrol, Green Tea Extract, Curcumin, Oxaloacetic Acid, and Medium-Chain Triglyceride Oil on Life Span of Genetically Heterogeneous Mice,” The Journals of Gerontology, Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 68, no. 1 (January 2013): 6[-]16, doi:10.1093/gerona/gls070,

Kathryn Rutter et al., “Green Tea Extract Suppresses the Age-Related Increase in Collagen Crosslinking and Fluorescent Products in C57BL/6 Mice,”International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 73, no. 6 (November 2003): 453[-]460, doi:10.1024/0300-9831.73.6.453,

Alive by Nature, “Green Tea Shown to Prolong Lifespan in Mice,” n.d.,

19. Longevity Is about Not Just What You Eat, But Also What You Drink!

Bo Xi et al., “Relationship of Alcohol Consumption to All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer-Related Mortality in U.S. Adults,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 70, no. 8 (August 22, 2017): 913[-]922, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2017.06.054.

UCI News, “National Institute on Aging Renews Funding for UCI’s 90+ Study,” October 17, 2013,

David Cameron, “New Study Validates Longevity Pathway,” Harvard Medical School, March 7, 2013,

20. A Secret Sauce for a Longer Life: Hot Sauce!

Mice Feel Less Pain Live Longer

Blocking pain receptors found to extend lifespan in mammals

Jasmin Fox-Skelly, “Live Longer,” Ashley Food Company, May 22, 2014,

Céline E. Riera et al., “TRPV1 Pain Receptors Regulate Longevity and Metabolism by Neuropeptide Signaling,” Cell 157, no. 5 (May 22, 2014): 1023[-]1036, doi:

Kathryn Hulick, “The Cool Science of Hot Peppers: Chilies Can Make Food Safer, Relieve Pain and May Even Help People Lose Weight,” Science News for Students,

May 5, 2016,

Roger Highfield, “How Your Chilli Addiction Could Be Helping You Live Longer,” Newsweek, July 24, 2014,

Blocking Pain Receptors Extends Lifespan, Mouse Study Suggests

The Intriguing Link Between Spicy Food and a Longer Life

21. Get Hooked on Fish

Lisa J. Mogilanski, “Study Shows Omega-3 Fatty Acids Extend Life,” Harvard Crimson, April 9, 2013,

Ryan Jaslow, “Two Servings of Fatty Fish Per Week May Tack on Two Extra Years to Life Span,” CBS News, April 2, 2013,

Katherine Hobson and Allison Underhill, “Best Fish: High in Omega-3s – and Environment-Friendly,” U.S. News & World Report, June 29, 2016,

Environmental Defense Fund, “Mercury Alert: Is Canned Tuna Safe to Eat?,” n.d.,

22. Turn Up the Heat

Tanjaniina Laukkanen et al., “Association Between Sauna Bathing and Fatal Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Events,” JAMA Internal Medicine 175, no. 4 (April 2015): 542[-]548, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8187,

The JAMA Network, “Sauna Use Associated with Reduced Risk of Cardiac, All-Cause Mortality,” February 23, 2015,

23. Dance Your Way to a Longer Life

Independent, “Get Dancing for a Happier (and Longer) Life,” December 30, 2008,

Jonathan Skinner, “Social Dance for Successful Aging: The Practice of Health, Happiness, and Social Inclusion Amongst Senior Citizens,” Anthropology and Aging Quarterly 34, no. 1 (March 2013): 18[-]29,

Aniko Maraz et al., “Why Do You Dance? Development of the Dance Motivation Inventory (DMI),” PLoS One 10, no. 3 (2015): e0122866, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122866,

Kathrin Rehfeld et al., “Dancing or Fitness Sport? The Effects of Two Training Programs on Hippocampal Plasticity and Balance Abilities in Healthy Seniors,”Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (June 15, 2017),

24. Kelp Can Help

Eliza Barclay, “Eating to Break 100: Longevity Diet Tips from the Blue Zones,” The Salt, National Public Radio, April 11, 2015,

Hippocrates Health Institute, “5 Fantastic Facts About Sea Vegetables & Algae,” August 24, 2016

Jane Philpott and Montse Bradford, “Seaweed: Nature’s Secret for a Long and Healthy Life?” Nutrition Practitioner, Winter 2006,

Healing Lifestyles, “Mineral Magnificence for Your Health,” n.d.,

Enviro-Health-Tech, “Sea Vegetables,” n.d.,

25. Wash Your Hands.

World Health Organization, “Save Lives: Clean Your Hands,” May 15, 2017,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives,”

Carl P. Borchgrevink, PhD, JaeMin Cha, PhD, and SeungHyun Kim, PhD, “Hand Washing Practices in a College Town Environment,” National Environmental Health Association: Advancement of the Science 75, no. 8 (2013),

World Health Organization, “WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance,” 2001,

26. Stop Dyeing to Be Beautiful

Thu Quach, “How Your Nail Polish Could Be Damaging Your Health,” Daily Mail, May 21, 2015,

Sara Sciammacco, “Duke-EWG Study Finds Toxic Nail Polish Chemical In Women’s Bodies,” Environmental Working Group, October 19, 2015,

Mary Jo DiLonardo, “What’s In Your Personal Care Products?” WebMD, n.d.,

Kathleen Hou, “CVS Is Removing These Chemicals from Its Beauty Products,” The Cut, April 19, 2017,

Katie Becker, “10 American Beauty Ingredients That Are Banned in Other Countries,” Cosmopolitan, November 8, 2016,

27. If You Sweat A Lot, You Get A Lot

National Cancer Institute,  “Physical Activity and Cancer,” n.d.,

World Health Organization, “Physical Activity,” n.d.,

Fred DeVito, “Exhale,” n.d.,

American Heart Association, “American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults,” n.d.,

28. What You Don’t See Can Kill You

Stephen Lester, Michael Schade, and Caitlin Weigand, Volatile Vinyl: The New Shower Curtain’s Chemical Smell, Center for Health, Environment & Justice, June 2008,

Chun Z. Yang et al., “Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved,” Environmental Health Perspectives 119, no. 7 (July 1, 2011): 989[-]996, doi:10.1289/ehp.1003220,

University of Minnesota, “Harmful Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation,” School of Public Health, Environmental & Occupational Health, n.d.,

Environmental Working Group, “The Trouble with Ingredients in Sunscreens,” n.d.,

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Medical X-ray Imaging,” n.d.,

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, “Noise-Induced Hearing Loss,” n.d.,

Jane E. Brody, “Vision and Hearing Loss Are Tied to Cognitive Decline,” Personal Health, New York Times, September 25, 2017,

Frank R. Lin et al., “Hearing Loss and Incident Dementia,” Archives of Neurology 68, no. 2 (February 2011): 214[-]220, doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.362,

Katherine Griffin and Katherine Bouton, “Hearing Loss Linked to Dementia: Can Getting a Hearing Aid Help Prevent Memory Loss?” AARP, n.d.,

LifeExtension, “Hearing Loss and Tinnitus,” n.d.,

Hearing Health & Technology Matters, “Life, Longevity, Cognitive Decline, Hearing Loss . . . More Connected Than We Used to Think,” November 8, 2016,

Jane E. Brody, “Personal Health: Lifelines for People with Hearing Loss,” Well, New York Times, January 16, 2012,

Frank R. Lin et al., “Hearing Loss and Incident Dementia,” Archives of Neurology 68, no. 2 (February 2011): 214[-]220, doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.362,

29. An Apple Cider Vinegar a Day Keeps the Doctor Away

Michael Mosley, “Are the Health Claims about Apple Cider Vinegar True?” BBC Magazine, September 1, 2016,

Andrea M. White, PhD, and Carol S. Johnston, PhD, “Vinegar Ingestion at Bedtime Moderates Waking Glucose Concentrations in Adults With Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30, no. 11 (November 2007): 2814[-]2815,

Derya Atik, Cem Atik, and Celalettin Karatepe, “The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and Social Appearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (January 3, 2016), doi:10.1155/2016/6473678,

Carol S. Johnston, PhD, Cindy M. Kim, MS, and Amanda J. Buller, MS, “Vinegar Improves Insulin Sensitivity to a High-Carbohydrate Meal in Subjects with Insulin Resistance or Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 27, no. 1 (January 2004): 281[-]282,

30. Garlic: Bad for Vampires, Good for Humans

Gloria A. Benavides et al., “Hydrogen Sulfide Mediates the Vasoactivity of Garlic,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, no. 45 (September 2007): 17977[-]17982, doi:10.1073/pnas.0705710104,

31. Avoid This Strip Act

Greg Trotter, “Whole Grains Can Help You Live Longer, Harvard Study Finds,” Chicago Tribune, June 13, 2016,

Eugenia Killoran, “Why Brown Rice Is Better Than White Rice,” n.d.,

Alice G. Walton, “Eat Whole Grains for a Long Life, New Study Says,” Pharma & Healthcare, Forbes, March 25, 2015,

Dagfinn Aune, PhD, et al., “Whole Grain Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and All Cause and Cause Specific Mortality: Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies,” BMJ 353 (June 14, 2016), doi:,

Geng Zong, Alisa Gao, Frank B. Hu, and Qi Sun, “Whole Grain Intake and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies,” Circulation 133 (June 13, 2016): 2370[-]2380,

32. Get a PhD in Your pH Levels

Josh Axe, “Balancing Act: Why pH Is Crucial to Health,” n.d.,

Robin Foroutan, “Alkaline Diet: Does pH Affect Health and Wellness?” Food & Nutrition, April 28, 2016,

Healthy Canning, “Just How Nutritious Are Home Canned Foods?” n.d.,

33. Exhale Stress, Inhale Long Life

The Science of Meditation’s Effects on Aging

Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density

Eileen Luders, Nicolas Cherbuin, and Christian Gaser, “Estimating Brain Age Using High-Resolution Pattern Recognition: Younger Brains in Long-Term Meditation Practitioners,” NeuroImage 134 (2016): 508[-]513,

34. Try the Chuckle Prescription

The effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell activity.

The report: The effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell activity.

M. P. Bennett, J. M. Zeller, L. Rosenberg, and J. McCann, “The Effect of Mirthful Laughter on Stress and Natural Killer Cell Activity,” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 9, no. 2 (March-April 2003): 38[-]45,

Roger Dobson, “Want to Live Longer? Carry On Laughing,” Independent, December 16, 2008,

Keiko Hayashi, RN, PhD, et al., “Laughter Lowered the Increase in Postprandial Blood Glucose,” Diabetes Care 26, no. 5 (May 2003): 1651[-]1652,

T. Matsuzaki, A. Nakajima, S. Ishigami, M. Tanno, and S. Yoshino, “Mirthful Laughter Differentially Affects Serum Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels Depending on the Level of Disease Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Rheumatology 45, no. 2 (February 1, 2006): 182[-]186,

35. Thinking Outside of the Box Can Keep You Outside of That Other Box!

Tori Rodriguez, “Creativity Predicts a Longer Life,” Scientific American, September 1, 2012,

Nicholas A. Turiano, MS, Avron Spiro, PhD, and Daniel K. Mroczek, PhD, “Openness to Experience and Mortality in Men,” Journal of Aging and Health, January 4, 2012,

Deepak Chopra, Ageless Body, Timeless Mind: The Quantum Alternative to Growing Old (New York: Random House, 2009).

36. Helping Others Helps You Live Longer

Corporation for National and Community Service, Office of Research and Policy Development, “The Health Benefits of Volunteering: A Review of Recent Research,” April 2007,

Remy Melina, “People Who Volunteer Live Longer, Study Suggests,” Live Science, September 12, 2011,

A. Hamilton, “Selfless Volunteering Might Lengthen Your Life, Research Suggests,” Monitor on Psychology 42, no. 10 (November 2011): 12,

37. Bless Your Stress

Whitney Witt, “Feeling Stressed? How You Think about It Could Harm Your Health,” University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, December 29, 2011,

38. The Better Your Social Life, the Longer Your Whole Life!

Joe Hadfield, “Stayin’ Alive: That’s What Friends Are For,” Brigham Young University News, July 26, 2010,

Julianne Holt-Lunstad, Timothy B. Smith, and J. Bradley Layton, “Social Relationships and Mortality Risk: A Meta-Analytic Review,” PLoS MedicineJuly 27, 2010,

Nicholas Bakalar, “Longevity: Bonds of Friendship, Not Family, May Add Years,” New York Times, June 28, 2005,

L. Giles, G. Glonek, M. Luszcz, and G. Andrews, “Effect of Social Networks on 10 Year Survival in Very Old Australians: The Australian Longitudinal Study of Aging,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59, no. 7 (July 2005): 574[-]579, doi:10.1136/jech.2004.025429.

Maria Konnikova, “The Limits of Friendship,” New Yorker, October 7, 2014,

39. One of the Best Doctor’s Assistants Has Four Legs

W. P. Anderson, C. M. Reid, and G. L. Jennings, “Pet Ownership and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease,” Medical Journal of Australia 157, no. 5 (September 7, 1992): 298[-]301,

The American Heart Association, “Owning a Pet May Protect You from Heart Disease,” May 2, 2017,

Adnan I. Qureshi, MD, Muhammad Zeeshan Memon, MD, Gabriela Vazquez, PhD, MS, and M. Fareed K. Suri, MD, “Cat Ownership and the Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Diseases: Results from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Study Mortality Follow-up Study,” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology 2, no. 1 (January 2009): 132[-]135,

Vidhi Desai, Calvin Leung, Ye Rin Lim, and Julie M. Fagan, PhD, “Pets: Do They Enhance Our Immunity? A Pilot Study on Pet Ownership and the Incidence of Illness by Age and Ethnicity” (video), Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Fall 2012,

Andrea BeetzKerstin Uvn?s-MobergHenri Julius, and Kurt Kotrschal, “Psychosocial and Psychophysiological Effects of Human-Animal Interactions: The Possible Role of Oxytocin,” Frontiers in Psychology 3 (2012): 234,

Carl J. Charnetski, Sandra Riggers, and Francis X. Brennan, “Effect of Petting a Dog on Immune System Function,” Psychological Reports 95, no. 3 Pt 2 (December 2004):1087[-]91,

40. Delay When You Retire, Delay When You Expire

Howard S. Friedman and Leslie R. Martin, The Longevity Project: Surprising Discoveries for Health and Long Life from the Landmark Eight-Decade Study(Toronto, ON: Hudson Street Press, 2011),

Peter Flax, “Creative Until You Die,” Hollywood Reporter, n.d.,

41. Lie about Your Age

Ellen J. Langer, Counterclockwise: Mindful Health and the Power of Possibility (New York: Ballantine Books, 2009).

42. Mindfully Create Your Food Commandments

Cornell Food & Brand Lab, “About Us,” n.d.,

43. Score an “A” at Having a “C Personality”

Tiffany Myers Cole, “Conscientious Personalities May Live a Longer Life, Experts Say,” PeopleKeys, n.d.,

44. Avoid “Groaning” Older

B. R. Levy, M. D. Slade, S. R. Kunkel, and S. V. Kasl, “Longevity Increased by Positive Self-Perceptions of Aging,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83, no. 2 (August 2002): 261[-]70,

45. You Are Who You Eat With!

Deakin University, “Could Healthy Living Be Contagious?” November 30, 2010,

Alison Palmer, “Want to Extend Your Life Expectancy? 20 Things You Can Do to Help You Live for Longer,” Mirror, March 11, 2016,

46. Live and Learn: The More You Learn, the More You Live!

Robert A. Hummer and Elaine M. Hernandez, “The Effect of Educational Attainment on Adult Mortality in the United States,” Population Bulletin 68, no. 1 (June 2013): 1[-]16,

J. S. Herndon, “The Effects of Delay of Gratification on the Academic Achievement, Substance Abuse, and Violent Behavior of Middle-school Students in Alternative Learning Settings” (doctoral dissertation), University of Central Florida, 2011,

 Dan K. KielyAlden L. GrossDae H. Kim, and Lewis A. Lipsitza, “The Association of Educational Attainment and SBP among Older Community-Living Adults: The Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect and Zest in the Elderly (MOBILIZE) Boston Study,” Journal of Hypertension 30, no. 8 (August 2012): 1518[-]1525, doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283550fc0,

47. Promising “Till Death Do You Part” Delays When You Part

Science Daily, “Marriage Linked to Better Survival in Middle Age; Study Highlights Importance of Social Ties during Midlife,” January 10, 2013,

Harvard Men’s Health Watch, “Marriage and Men’s Health,” July 2010,

NYU Langone Health, “Married People Less Likely to Have Cardiovascular Problems, According to Large-Scale Study by Researchers at NYU Langone,” March 28, 2014,

Catherine Addington, “NYU Langone Finds Marriage Is Good for the Heart — Literally,” NYU Local, March 31, 2014,

48. Ill Feelings Can Make You Ill

Karina W. Davidson, PhD, and Elizabeth Mostofsky, MPH, “Anger Expression and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Evidence From the Nova Scotia Health Survey,” American Heart Journal 159, no. 2 (February 2010): 199[-]206, doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2009.11.007,

Mudit Bakshi, “Are You Angry All the Time? Here’s What You Need to Know,”, May 27, 2017,

L. D. Kubzansky, D. Sparrow, B. Jackson, S. Cohen, S. T. Weiss, and R. J. Wright, “Angry Breathing: A Prospective Study of Hostility and Lung Function in the Normative Aging Study,” Thorax 61, no. 10 (October 2006: 863[-]868, doi:10.1136/thx.2005.050971,

Debbie Strong, “7 Ways Anger Is Ruining Your Health,”, May 29, 2015,

L. L. Toussaint, A. D. Owen, and A. Cheadle, “Forgive to Live: Forgiveness, Health, and Longevity,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 35, no. 4 (August 2012): 375[-]86, doi:10.1007/s10865-011-9362-4,

49. Be the Right Amount of Positive

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, “‘Personality Genes’ May Help Account for Longevity,” May 24, 2012,

Katherine Bouton, “Eighty Years Along, a Longevity Study Still Has Ground to Cover,” Science, New York Times, April 18, 2011,

50. Keep Faithing Forward

Miranda Hitti, “10 Healthy Aging Tips from Centenarians,” WebMD, July 29, 2008,

Shanshan Li, ScD, et al., “Association of Religious Service Attendance with Mortality among Women,” JAMA Internal Medicine 176, no. 6 (2016): 777[-]785, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.1615,

Dan Buettner, “A Recipe for Longevity? Beans, Friends, Purpose and Movement,” NPR, Aug 26, 2015,

 University of Maryland Medical Center, “Spirituality,” n.d.,

Jonathan Ewald, “The Important Relationship Between Faith and Longevity,” Life + Health, December 6, 2012,

51. The Perkier Your Mood, the Perkier Your Body

Amanda MacMillan, “Happiness Linked to Longer Life,” Health, CNN, April 16, 2015,

Corey L. M. Keyes and Eduardo J. Simoes, “To Flourish or Not: Level of Positive Mental Health Predicts Ten-Year All-Cause Mortality,” American Journal of Public Health 102, no. 11 (2012): 2164[-]2172.

52. Be Responsible for Something–Even a Plant

Ellen J. Langer and Judith Rodin, “The Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibility for the Aged: A Field Experiment in an Institutional Setting,”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34, no. 2 (August 1976): 191[-]8,

53. Vanity Helps Longevity

Laura M. Hsu, Jaewoo Chung, and Ellen J. Langer, “The Influence of Age-Related Cues on Health and Longevity,” Perspectives on Psychological Science, December 7, 2010,

54. Warning: Being Too Chill Can Kill!

Katherine Bouton, “Eighty Years Along, a Longevity Study Still Has Ground to Cover,” Science, New York Times, April 18, 2011,

Annie Britton and Martin J. Shipley, “Bored to Death?” International Journal of Epidemiology 39, no. 2 (April 1, 2010): 370[-]371,

55. Wear An Apron

Rosalind Chia-Yu Chen, Meei-Shyuan Lee, Yu-Hung Chang, and Mark L. Wahlqvist, “Cooking Frequency May Enhance Survival in Taiwanese Elderly,”Public Health Nutrition 15, no. 7 (July 2012): 1142[-]1149,

56. Feeling Guilty about Not Going to the Gym Could Be Bad for Your Health

Octavia H. Zahrt and Alia J. Crum, “Perceived Physical Activity and Mortality: Evidence from Three Nationally Representative U.S. Samples,” Health Psychology 36, no. 11 (2017): 1017[-]1025, doi:10.1037/hea0000531.

Angus Chen, “Just Thinking You’re Slacking on Exercise Could Boost Risk of Death,” All Things Considered, NPR, July 20, 2017,

57. Smile Bigger

Ernest L. Abel and Michael L. Kruger, “Smile Intensity in Photographs Predicts Longevity,” Psychological Science, September 9, 2009,

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